Facilitación de las exportaciones de ganado en Etiopía
The project's objectives are two-fold:
- Build capacity of Ethiopia's competent authority to meet the Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) requirements of potential and existing importing countries (mainly in the Middle East and North Africa, MENA) for export of sheep, goat and cattle meat; and
- Improve coordination and linkages among the various meat sector value chain actors.
The project will work with stakeholders identified in different stages of the meat value chain and support them to implement good SPS related practices, improve capacity to prevent zoonotic disease and control of food safety hazards.
Ethiopia is endowed with huge livestock resources. It has the highest livestock population in Africa and its export growth potential for meat over the last decade had been very promising. However, available data indicates that Ethiopia’s livestock and livestock products export is very minimal as compared with the national potential. Despite the substantial demand for meat and livestock products from potential importing countries, export to those markets is a challenge due to stringent animal health requirements and repeated bans.
The livestock sector in Ethiopia offers a high, untapped potential for production and trade opportunities which, if exploited, would have a direct impact on sustainable economic growth and poverty reduction both at national and household levels. According to the Ethiopian Meat and Dairy Industry Development Institute (EMDIDI), the country can produce and export a total of about 500,000 Metric Ton of meat and earn about USD 1.8 billion annually. Non-compliance with SPS standards and inadequate control mechanisms have been identified by the public and private sector as major issues affecting export capacity, market expansion and competitiveness in the sector.
In recent years Ethiopia has put increased emphasis on the livestock sector. It has recognized livestock as a major growth driver for the economy and formulated a Livestock Master Plan (LMP) to guide the development of the sector. A separate Ministry, the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, has also been established to lead the process. The Master Plan has informed the second Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP II) of the sector, which is officially endorsed by parliament. The LMP of the country is export focused, and with the second Growth and Transformation Plan that spans from 2015-2020, the country envisages to reach the capacity to export 1.2 million heads of animals (USD 526 million) and 78,000 tons of meat (USD 383 million) per year. Much of this increase is expected to come from beef which is currently produced at very low level. This requires increasing the customer base in existing export markets and entering new markets with more stringent SPS requirements and enhancing the competitiveness of the beef industry. As part of this move, the SPS requirements of 28 potential importing countries have already been mapped. Building the SPS capacity of the country to comply with the requirements of the identified potential importing countries is critical.
Specifically, the STDF supported project will focus on capacity building to enable the country to comply with SPS requirements of potential importing countries in the MENA as well as in South East Asia for exporting sheep, goat and cattle meat.
The project will contribute to strengthen the regulatory capacity of the country through enhancing competence of public regulatory institutions to perform official controls. Specifically, the federal veterinary services will be capacitated in SPS negotiations, risk analysis, reviewing and updating legislations, Standard Operation Procedures and guidelines. Four regional veterinary laboratories in areas where animals are sourced for export of meat will be supported, trained and coached in laboratory quality management and information management systems. The quality control laboratory of the Ethiopian Veterinary Drug and Feed Quality Control and Administration Authority will also be equipped to perform laboratory analysis for the possible presence of residues in meat. The project will strengthen market linkages and market-oriented approaches among prospective business partners along the value chain through awareness creation, better understanding of markets and compliance with importing countries’ requirements in terms of animal health, hygiene and sanitation standards.
This project was prepared, through an STDF PPG in consultation with key project stakeholders in the meat value chain in Ethiopia.
Strengthened capacity of the competent authority to apply, inspect and monitor SPS measures along the export meat value chain
The project will explore opportunities to penetrate new markets, including exports of fresh (chilled) and processed meat to MENA, and South East Asian countries. The Ethiopian competent authority will undertake a series of bilateral negotiations during project implementation, to discuss specific SPS issues related to meat exports from Ethiopia to other potential markets.
Based on the outcomes of the OIE PVS Evaluation (2011) and subsequent Gap Analysis (2012) reports as well as recommendations made by the OIE Veterinary Legislation Support Programme (VLSP), the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries (MoLF) is working on a new unified policy and regulatory framework for animal health services, which complies with current scientific advances, as well as international standards and requirements of trading partners. Under the project, legislation will be finalized based on the recommendations of the OIE VLSP mission and consultative workshops involving relevant stakeholders.
The project will also build the risk analysis capacity of the MoLF. A pool of experts within the Directorate of Epidemiology and higher learning institutes will be trained on veterinary risk analysis. This training will develop capacity at national level to undertake qualitative risk analysis for the purpose of supporting export trade, developing risk-based control programmes, including risk communication.
The OIE PVS Evaluation and Gap-Analysis reports identified the lack of capacity for residue monitoring at national level. Accordingly, a national residue monitoring plan will be developed in coordination with the Veterinary Drug and Feed Administration and Control Authority (VDFACA) to ensure that meat and meat products are free of adulterants and a wide range of biological and chemical contaminants. The plan will establish the frequencies and level of sampling and the substances to be controlled in meat. Chemical compounds to be considered in the plan include approved and unapproved veterinary drugs, pesticides, and environmental contaminants of concern for trading partners.
Revise existing Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and guidelines related to livestock and meat and support their implementation (disease control, meat animal handling, quarantine, meat processing, meat handling and transporting)
A total of fourteen SOPs and guidelines will be revised, updated, printed and implemented to ensure SPS compliance along the meat value chain. These are guidelines and SOPs developed by the (then) Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) in collaboration with the Ethiopian Sanitary and Phytosanitary and Livestock and Meat Marketing (SPS-LMM) Programme. The guidelines and SoPs define minimum requirements that livestock producers, meat processors, traders, transporters and others must satisfy in order to participate in the export trade. A total of 300 persons from export abattoirs, feedlots, markets operators, and Bole airport will be trained on the use and implementation of the SOPs.
Support accreditation of the residue testing lab of Veterinary Drug and Feed Quality Control and Administration Authority (VDFACA, Kality Lab)
Assistance will be provided to VDFACA's quality control laboratory "Kality Lab" to complete its preparations to become an operational and official laboratory. Personnel of Kality Lab will be trained to conduct high quality residue analysis that would be accepted by international standard setting bodies, such as Codex, or by other national governments for the establishment of MRLs. Capacity will be developed in areas of standard operating procedures, quality assurance systems, and methodology development in order to perform high-quality, reliable, residue testing. The laboratory will also be supported to acquire third party accreditation for selected and prioritized tests and residues.
Introduce a Lab Information Management System (LIMS) and Laboratory Quality Management System (QMS) in regional labs along the meat export value chain
The four regional laboratories involved in the meat export value chain ( in Yabello, JiJiga, Semera and Mekelle) will be strengthened to build basic export testing capacity. A QMS involving proficiency testing will be introduced. An effective LIMS involving both federal and regional veterinary will be established.
Increased coordination and linkages among the sector value chain actors including with destination markets
The project will improve public and private cooperation, networking and market linkages along the meat value chain and with national, regional and international trading partners. The project will also support the establishment of a coordination forum to enhance collaboration between the federal and three regional veterinary services.
The project will develop a fully functional website dedicated to SPS and related issues. This website will provide timely and regular information to exporters and will contain publications related to official control procedures and minimum export standards.
The project will also support the competent authority in developing an effective communications strategy to support regular information dissemination to various actors involved in the meat value chain. The project will help to operationalize the national SPS Committee. In general, these national SPS coordination mechanism appear to be at an early stage of development and the Committee members have not started meeting on a regular basis. The National SPS Committee will be equipped to serve as a national forum for dialogue and coherence on SPS matters and for resolving SPS issues affecting regional and/or international trade.
Strengthen linkages between exporters and importers of meat in selected key meat markets in MENA and South East Asia
At least two business networking events will be organized to bring the trained and coached processors/exporters to meet prospective buyers. The project together with the sector association will contact and mobilize processors/exporters and buyers prior to the event. Advisory support will be provided to the selected participating companies to prepare them before the business networking event and to follow-up on the business contacts established after the event.